This is topic Is it bad if footnotes take up 1/3 of a page? in forum Books, Films, Food and Culture at Hatrack River Forum.

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Posted by Blayne Bradley (Member # 8565) on :
I have to write a foreign policy paper on Australian policy on regional crisises and refugees, asylum seekers etc which is supposed to take up 1 page with a bullet point summary of Australia's policies.

I am assuming I need to source each bullet but they all comes from the same webpage being the Australian Deptartment of Immigration website as such I have some repetitions.

Is this "bad"? Or is there some way to source the last one and say this applies to all the above bulletens?
Posted by Blayne Bradley (Member # 8565) on :
Each policy position should be approximately a single page in length (single‐spaced for a total of two
pages for both simulation issues), and must include a brief historical discussion of that state's policies in
that issue area, followed by a succinct bullet form encapsulation of its policies (what it would do if
confronted with that issue again), and a brief bibliography to indicate the source of the material. The
bibliography must include at least one recent Internet source and at least one relevant library source.
Students are not to fabricate policies and must provide citations for all the state’s listed policies. Internet
links related to the state's foreign policy are welcome in the bibliography.

Does this mean i can skip sourcing and only put my relevent sources within my bibliography?
Posted by fugu13 (Member # 2859) on :
Have a short bibliography at the end. Refer to the entries in text as your professor's preferred style guide indicates.

For instance, here's how you do it for the Chicago Manual of Style.
Posted by Blayne Bradley (Member # 8565) on :
Okay so "Amnesty International says X" and then in biblio state the source with no need for foot notes then?
Posted by fugu13 (Member # 2859) on :
I would mention in-text that the website of Amnesty International (not just Amnesty International) is where you got it, the first time mentioned. After that you can just put

(Amnesty International)
at the end of sentences citing information from their site, as shown in the Web site section on the Chicago page.
Posted by Blayne Bradley (Member # 8565) on :
So instead of "In addition Australia has shown again its commitment to anti-Nuclear weapons proliferation measures by its quick signing into law the sanctions on North Korea for its nuclear weapons tests.[4]"

I would say "In addition Australia has shown again its commitment to anti-Nuclear weapons proliferation measures by its quick signing into law the sanctions on North Korea for its nuclear weapons tests according to the website of the Australian Dept. of Foreign Affairs." And then place the link in Chicago format in the bibliography?
Posted by fugu13 (Member # 2859) on :
For the first use of that source. For later uses of that source, you should probably say something like:

In 19Blah, Blah Blah'd (Australian Dept. of Foreign Affairs).
Note that Chicago style is just one way of doing things. Ideally you should follow your teacher's preferred method.

Something I feel I should clear up: except in certain formats (which I severely doubt your professor would like you using), references are not footnotes. They are a list of things you can refer to in the text, but their order is not related to the order in the text (alphabetizing is most common).
Posted by Blayne Bradley (Member # 8565) on :
Its an online courses so yeah... No idea of the profs preferences.

I am gonna go for a compromise of footnoting the bulletpoints but referring to the sources in the history bit as well as have the biblioghraphy instead of footnoting everything that seems to be a bit like overfootnoting.
Posted by SoaPiNuReYe (Member # 9144) on :
Perhaps use endnotes if footnotes aren't specifically required.

Edit: nevermind.
Posted by Blayne Bradley (Member # 8565) on :
Well I submitted it, for better or worse.


Australian Policy Paper On Refugees and Regional Intervention
By Blayne Bradley

Australia's foreign and domestic policy on the issues of refugees and policies in case of national or regional emergencies will be explained, firstly Australia's policies begun to be formulated during the start of hostilities in the pacific during the Second World War brought upon by the Japanese invasion of South East Asia and when the fall of Singapore forced Australia to radically adapt to changing circumstances, circumstances that only seemed to get worse and more unsettling when the Japanese were defeated and Communist insurgencies and independence movements sprung up to take their place. This coupled with Australia's earlier fears of Australian “white” European culture getting overwhelmed by Asian immigrants during the early 20th century all have their relevance in today's Australian policies regarding foreign intervention in trouble spots and current domestic struggle to deal with the issue of refugees according to Australia Faces South East Asia by Amry and Mary Vanderbosch. In regards to Australian policies of intervention Australia has as such since the 60's maintained a tough stance on maintaining regional peace and stability siding against Indonesia and its “confrontational” policy versus Malaysia and West New Guinea and has maintained a strong position on intervening in unstable crisis areas in stabilizing operations such as in East Timor and in the Solomon islands according to the Australian War Memorial. Australia's current policies over refugees and immigration have continued to be a bone of contention as Amnesty International has levied sharp criticisms on the Australian government for its unequal treatment of refugees such as denying refugee status to those who arrive “outside” of the specifically designated migration zone and transferring many asylum seekers to indefinite detention because they are “Unauthorized arrivals” in a costly processing procedure where refugees lack important legal, medical, and counseling services that are offered on the mainland but not on the eastern island processing center. However despite unfavorable conditions for refugees average Australians are supportive of the plight of refugees according to a Neilson Poll (Amnesty International). Current Australian policies in regarding intervention in neighboring failed states and refugee crisis policies are as follows:

Australia is dedicated to protecting refugees from human rights abuses.1
Australia is willing to share responsibility as a member of the international community.2
Expresses its commitment to “refugee protection by going beyond these obligations and offering resettlement to people overseas for whom this is the most appropriate option.”3
Abides by international obligations by offering protection refugees already within Australia according to the Refugees Convention.4
Australia stands by its commitment to regionalism and multilateral cooperation.5
Australia also stands by the need to intervene in countries within the “arc of instability” to maintain Australia's national interests.6

Australian Policy Paper On Nuclear Weapons Proliferation
By Blayne Bradley

Australian foreign policy in the field of Nuclear Weapons Proliferation and anti-Proliferation measures are well known, well documented, and uninterrupted. Australia, according to Australia and Nuclear Weapons: The case for a non-nuclear region in South East Asia by Peter King and Anthony Ross has a long history in the debate of Nuclear Proliferation that has its roots in the early stages of the Cold War when Australian politicians and military officers in the 1960's called for Australia to gain the capability to produce nuclear weapons and for a open debate on a nuclear armed Australia to act as a credible deterrent against the then possible threat of Chinese invasion and nuclear attack along with the possibility that Indonesia whom Australia has had a troublesome relationship with would to gain leverage over Australian foreign policy over West New Guinea and other regional island states also seek nuclear capabilities. The debate however veered sharply in the opposite direction when the Australian Labour Party adopted a new policy in the early 1960's calling for the southern hemisphere to become a “nuclear free zone” beginning the national debate within Australia over the matter of nuclear proliferation. Now Australia is a signatory of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty according to the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs as well as a producer of over 30 percent of the worlds supply of uranium and as such has put in place strict measures to restrict the sale of uranium that could be used to construct nuclear weapons. Enforcing this for example by refusing to export uranium to India until India signs the NPT according to Thaindian News. In addition Australia has shown again its commitment to anti-Nuclear weapons proliferation measures by its quick signing into law the sanctions on North Korea for its nuclear weapons tests (Australian Dept. of Foreign Affairs). Furthermore Australia has seen risks and weaknesses with the current NPT arrangements with the increased interest in civilian nuclear power world wide which posses a risk in the proliferation not so much as nuclear weapons but more specifically of proliferation sensitive nuclear technologies and is taking steps to reduce the risk of exporting proliferation sensitive technologies according to John Carlson.

Australia is committed to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.7
Australia is also committed to enforcing the treaty by restricting or preventing the sales of nuclear materials and technologies that may aid to the spread and proliferation of nuclear weapons among non signatories of the Treaty or nations in violation of it.8
Should confronted with a request to purchase supplies of uranium or any technologies linked to the development of nuclear weapons or nuclear weapon delivery systems Australia will maintain its commitment by refusing sale.9
Australia is willing to sell uranium and technologies required for the peaceful use of nuclear power as per the NPT for as long as the nation in question is a signatory of the NPT.10
Australia is currently working on several layers to encourage the development of proliferation resistant nuclear technologies to reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation from the sale of potential dual use technologies.11

Bibliography for Australian Policy Paper

Vanderbosch, Amry, and Mary Belle Vanderbosch. Australia Faces Southeast Asia: Emergance of a Foreign Policy. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1967.

Ross, Anthony, and Peter King. Australia and Nuclear Weapons: The case for a non-nuclear region in southeast Asia. Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1966.

Australian Government, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, retrieved from (2009).

Carlson, John. Australian Government, Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office, retrieved from

Australian Government, Department of Immigration, retrieved from (2009).

McDougall, Derek, Australia and Asia-Pacific Security Regionalism: From Hawke and Keating to Howard, retrieved from Questia,;jsessionid=K6Zf4jqwDSn7pLstp41ZpTZ9kQ5xwyLrhDQQQnWX1Hv1F7DD3G9h!-1424203806!2066618780?docId=5002397085 (2001)

Dobell, Graeme. Correspondents report, The Pacific 'arc of instability', retrieved from (Sunday, 20, 2006)

Australian War Memorial, Official History of Peackeeping, Humanitarian and Post-Cold War Operations, retrieved from (2009)

Amnesty International, Australians support equal rights for asylum seekers, retrieved from (12, August, 2009)

Amnesty International, About the campaign, retrieved from (9, March, 2009)

Thaindian News, No Uranium sales unless India signs NPT: Australia, retrieved from (March, 19, 2009)

Australian Government, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, retrieved from and from Smith, Stephen MP Minister for Australian Foreign Affairs (12, August, 2009) and from

Posted by Orincoro (Member # 8854) on :
You were specifically advised not to use footnoting.

I would be exasperated, had I made the slightest effort to help you. I'm glad I didn't.
Posted by xtownaga (Member # 7187) on :
You know in fairness the advice not to use footnotes (not to mention the whole reason for Blayne originally asking whether or not he should use them) stemmed from the fact that including footnotes at the end of the page for each of his one page blurbs would make them significantly shorter than the professor (presumably) wanted. Other citation methods would not fill part of his one page quota. Since all his sources are listed after both blurbs, and a quick copy/paste into Word shows that each of the blurbs he wrote take about a page without the footnotes, he pretty much embraced the spirit of the advice given to him.

Or in other words he basically did this, given that he has no idea of the professor's preferred citation style:
Originally posted by fugu13:
Have a short bibliography at the end. Refer to the entries in text as your professor's preferred style guide indicates.

Posted by Blayne Bradley (Member # 8565) on :
In other note finding even TWO books on the issues above was nearly impossibly to find.
Posted by fugu13 (Member # 2859) on :
A useful trick: since you want books that focus on Australia, mostly, make some of your searches have Australia in the title field, and the secondary subject in the keywords field. For instance, at my university's catalog a search for Australia in the title field and refugees in the keywords field turned up numerous books, quite a few of them almost certainly relevant to your topic.

Also, do searches on WorldCat or just larger libraries. You can get the books by Inter-Library Loan, effectively transforming your university's library into a world-class library.
Posted by Blayne Bradley (Member # 8565) on :
I had procrastinated and only had 1 evening to write it [Smile]

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